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1) Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi born on June 8 1837 at Ostrogozhsk and died on April 6 1887 in Saint Petersburg, was a Russian painter and art critic.
2) Kramskoi came from an impoverished petit-bourgeois family. He was an intellectual leader of the Russian democratic art movement in 1860-1880.
3) From 1857 to 1863 he studied at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts; he reacted against academic art and was an initiator of the "revolt of fourteen".
4) Influenced by the ideas of the Russian revolutionary democrats, Kramskoi asserted the high public duty of the artist, principles of realism, and the moral substance and nationality of art.
5) In one of Kramskoi most well known paintings, Christ in the Desert (1872, Tretyakov gallery), he continued Alexander Ivanov's humanistic tradition by treating a religious subject in human way.
6) His persistent quest for objective public criteria for the evaluation of art exerted an essential influence on the development of realist art and aesthetics in Russia.
Date of Birth